First, what is fundamentalism? In the United States, it is the conservative Protestant movement rooted in the late 19th century but emerging about 100 years ago counteracting and opposing the rising tide of theological liberalism infesting almost all Christian denominations and the wider culture. Its early champions included William B. Riley, J. Frank Noris, and William Blackstone. They were called fundamentalists because they stressed fundamentals of the faith like the Bible’s divine inspiration and infallibility; the direct creation of the universe by God; and the virgin birth, atoning death, resurrection, and second advent of Jesus Christ. These were central Christian doctrines assaulted or bypassed by theological liberalism, which was the ecclesiastical expression of the wider modernist movement.
Fundamentalism as a theological paradigm became a movement, and it created a particular spirit that survives to this day and characterizes many Christians in their attitude toward both cultural and ecclesiastical evil, even if they disdain the label.